Lately there are a number of Hyoid/ Hyoid + Styloid related pathologies that are affecting some patients in this blog. I found an interesting article that addresses hyoid-larynx and its anatomical variations. Anyone who wants to know the different sizes and shapes of them, this nature article is handy.
Thorough anatomic knowledge of the hyoid-larynx complex is necessary for forensic radiologists and ear-nose-throat surgeons, given the many anatomic variations that originate in embryology. In forensics the anomalies must be distinguished from fractures because the latter are indicative of violence on the neck. In this manuscript we describe the anatomical variations that can be found in the hyoid-larynx complex and explain their etiology. 284 radiological scans of excised hyoid-larynx complexes were examined with X-ray and CT. Some rare cases from literature and historical collections were added. Two third of the examined hyoid-larynx complexes deviated from the anatomical standard and showed uni- or bilateral ankylosis in the hyoid bone and/or so-called triticeal cartilages. In one fifth of the cases we found striking anatomical variants, mostly derived from the cartilage of the second pharyngeal arch. Anatomical variations of the hyoid-larynx complex can be explained by embryological development. The aberrant hyoid apparatus and the elongated styloid processes (Eagle syndrome) should be considered as one clinical entity with two different expressions as both anomalies are derived from the cartilage of the second pharyngeal arch. Several variants can mimic fractures in this region, so our study is important for radiologists and forensic experts assessing cases of possible violence on the neck.